Переведите с русского на англискийНа территории, занимаемой современной Винницей, человек селился с незапамятных времен. Археологи нашли здесь орудия труда эпохи неолита, погребения бронзового века, раннеславянское поселение, относящееся к черняховской культуре. С середины Х в. территория современного города и его окрестностей была заселена уличами и тиверцами, входившими в состав Киевской Руси, а после её распада отошла к Галицко-Волынскому княжеству. После монголо-татарского нашествия жизнь на некоторое время уходит с берегов Южного Буга.

Основание Винницы связано с именем Фёдора Кориатовича, племянника литовского князя Ольгерда. В 1363 (по некоторым данным в 1362-м) году он заложил деревянную крепость на высокой круче, ниже впадения в Буг левого его притока — речки Виннички. Урочище Замковая гора, обращенное в XIX веке в каменоломни, к 1890 году исчезло совсем, превратилось в фундаменты городских домов и мостовые. Название «Винница» встречается уже в документе, подписанном 13 июня 1385 года в Кракове королем Владиславом Ягелло. Из многих версий, объясняющих название города, пожалуй, наиболее вероятны те, которые основываются на следующих словах: «Винница» — винокурня, где варились пива винные; старославянское «вьно» — посаг, приданое, полученное Кориатовичами; и Винничка — речка.

Небольшой деревянный замок в ряду других степных укреплений, конечно, не радовал ордынцев. С 1400 по 1569 год он подвергался тридцать раз только крупным нападениям, горел и снова вставал над Бугом. Макет винницкого замка можно увидеть в Областном краеведческом музее.

Замок представлял в плане прямоугольник размером примерно пятьдесят на семьдесят метров. Стены, сложенные городнями из сосновых и дубовых рубленых брусьев в клеть, имели высоту около шести метров каждая. С внутренней стороны стена представляла плетенку наподобие тына — из лозы с глиняной обмазкой. Поверх шестиметровой глухой стены устраивался крытый рубленый парапет—бланкованье, или обланки, — в котором оставляли отверстия для стрельбы — подсябитья (под ся бить) — из гаковниц или ружей. Со стороны двора вдоль стен тянулись сараи — кладовые; крыши их служили помостом, где складывались разные припасы для обороны — колодки, камни и т. п.: в нужный час обороны все это летело на головы врагов, а в час затишья собиралось и снова складывалось на помост. Здесь же стояли деревянные корыта с водой на случай пожара. По углам и над воротами высились рубленые башни — вежи с выходом на бланкованье. В башнях были установлены пушки. Проезд воротной башни закрывал подъемный мост — узвод. В центре двора стояла церковь Покрова, рядом располагались служебные и хозяйственные постройки. Тут же колодец и тайный ход к реке. Днем по бланкованьям ходили сторожа, ночью — кликуны. И только временами замок охраняла специальная военная стража — гарнизон драбов. Именно временами, потому что отнюдь не всегда был замок грозен и неприступен. Так, по ревизии 1471 года в нем имелась только одна пушка и две пищали.

Во второй половине XV века Винница по привилею Александра Казимировича уже пользовалась магдебургским правом. Самоуправление осуществлялось выборным магистратом, куда входила рада – совет из восьми человек во главе с бургомистром, лава – суд из пяти лавников с войтом во главе и гмина из двенадцати человек.Винница чудесный город

  • The territory occupied Vinnitsa modern man dwelt from time immemorial. Archaeologists find here tools Neolithic Bronze Age burial, early Slavic settlement from the chernyakhivska culture. Since the mid-tenth century. territory of the modern city and its surroundings has been inhabited and Tivertsy convict, was part of Kievan Rus, and after its collapse moved to Galicia-Volyn principality. After the Mongol-Tatar invasion, life for some time out from the shores of the Southern Bug.

    Vinnitsa base associated with the name Theodore Koriatovichi, nephew of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Algirdas. In 1363 (according to some sources in 1362-m), he laid a wooden fortress on high steeper below the confluence of the Bug left its tributary — river Vinnichka. Castle Hill Tract, addressed in the XIX century in the quarries, by 1890, disappeared completely turned into the foundations of houses and urban roadways. The name «Vinnitsa» occurs already in a document signed June 13, 1385 in Cracow King Wladyslaw Jagiello. Of the many versions explaining the name of the city, perhaps the most likely ones that are based on the following words: «Vinnitsa» — distillery where wine brewed beer, Old Slavic «vno» — posag dowry received Koriatovichi, and Vinnichka — river.

    Small wooden castle among other steppe fortifications, of course, was not pleased Horde. From 1400 to 1569 he was subjected to thirty times only major attacks, burned and rose again on the Bug. Layout Vinnitsa castle can be seen in the regional museum.

    Castle represented in terms of a rectangle measuring approximately fifty to seventy meters. Walls made of Gorodnov chopped pine and oak beams in the cage, had a height of about six meters each. On the inner side wall represented braid like Týn — from vines with clay plaster. Over a six-meter indoor blank wall was arranged chopped parapet-blankovane or oblanki — which left holes for shooting — podsyabitya (under smiling beat) — of gakovnits or guns. From the yard along the walls were lined with sheds — storage; roof served their dais where evolved different supplies for the defense — pads, rocks, etc.: Defense at the right time all flew on the heads of enemies, and an hour of silence and going again evolved on the platform. Here stood a wooden trough with water in case of fire. In the corners and over the gate tower loomed chopped — vezhi with access to blankovane. The towers were installed cannon. Travel portal tower closed drawbridge — uzvod. In the center of the courtyard was a church of the Intercession, located near offices and outbuildings. Immediately well and a secret passage to the river. Day went on blankovanyam watchman at night — hooping. And only occasionally castle guarded by a special military guard — Drabov garrison. It is at times because not always been formidable and impregnable castle. Thus, according to the audit in 1471 there was only one gun and two squeaked.

    In the second half of the XV century Vinnitsa by Alexander Kazimirovich privilege already enjoyed Magdeburg law. Municipality an elected magistrate, which included glad — Board of eight members headed by the mayor, the lava — the court of five fins with login and headed commune of twelve chelovek.Vinnitsa marvelous city

  • The territory occupied Vinnitsa modern man dwelt from time immemorial. Archaeologists find here tools Neolithic Bronze Age burial , early Slavic settlement from the chernyakhivska culture. Since the mid- tenth century. territory of the modern city and its surroundings has been inhabited and Tivertsy convict , was part of Kievan Rus, and after its collapse moved to Galicia-Volyn principality . After the Mongol -Tatar invasion, life for some time out from the shores of the Southern Bug.
    Vinnitsa base associated with the name Theodore Koriatovichi , nephew of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Algirdas . In 1363 ( according to some sources in 1362 — m) , he laid a wooden fortress on high steeper below the confluence of the Bug left its tributary — river Vinnichka . Castle Hill Tract , addressed in the XIX century in the quarries, by 1890, disappeared completely turned into the foundations of houses and urban roadways . The name » Vinnitsa » occurs already in a document signed June 13, 1385 in Cracow King Wladyslaw Jagiello . Of the many versions explaining the name of the city , perhaps the most likely ones that are based on the following words: » Vinnitsa » — distillery where wine brewed beer , Old Slavic » vno » — posag dowry received Koriatovichi , and Vinnichka — river .
    Small wooden castle among other steppe fortifications , of course, was not pleased Horde . From 1400 to 1569 he was subjected to thirty times only major attacks , burned and rose again on the Bug. Layout Vinnitsa castle can be seen in the regional museum.
    Castle represented in terms of a rectangle measuring approximately fifty to seventy meters. Walls made of Gorodnov chopped pine and oak beams in the cage , had a height of about six meters each. On the inner side wall represented braid like Týn — from vines with clay plaster . Over a six-meter indoor blank wall was arranged chopped parapet — blankovane or oblanki — which left holes for shooting — podsyabitya ( under smiling beat ) — of gakovnits or guns. From the yard along the walls were lined with sheds — storage ; roof served their dais where evolved different supplies for the defense — pads , rocks , etc. : Defense at the right time all flew on the heads of enemies , and an hour of silence and going again evolved on the platform . Here stood a wooden trough with water in case of fire . In the corners and over the gate tower loomed chopped — vezhi with access to blankovane . The towers were installed cannon. Travel portal tower closed drawbridge — uzvod . In the center of the courtyard was a church of the Intercession , located near offices and outbuildings. Immediately well and a secret passage to the river. Day went on blankovanyam watchman at night — hooping . And only occasionally castle guarded by a special military guard — Drabov garrison . It is at times because not always been formidable and impregnable castle . Thus, according to the audit in 1471 there was only one gun and two squeaked .
    In the second half of the XV century Vinnitsa by Alexander Kazimirovich privilege already enjoyed Magdeburg law . Municipality an elected magistrate , which included glad — Board of eight members headed by the mayor , the lava — the court of five fins with login and headed commune of twelve